Thursday, March 19, 2020
How to Become a Dietitian or Nutritionist As Americans face a growing obesity crisis and ever-growing awareness about how what we eat affects our health, medical professionals in the field of dietetics are key members of that front line. Behind every public program like healthier school lunch initiatives or campaigns to fight Type 2 diabetes, dietitians and nutritionists are the ones using science to set healthy food guidelines and diet plans. The Day-to-DayDietitians and nutritionists work in a variety of settings, from healthcare settings (hospitals and clinics) to government (public health agencies) to the private sector (food manufacturing and distribution companies). They may work directly with patients to create and maintain diet plans to lose weight or improve health, but they might also work on larger-scale public health programs to encourage healthy eating to broader populations. You can also find dietitians working on nutrition guidelines and food safety in the government or in private companies. Their tasks often include:Designing diets that target specific conditions, like obesity, diabetes, or high blood pressureHelping patients maintain diets for health or weight loss, and ensuring that patients are dieting safelyDeveloping nutrition programs for an entire facilityImproving accuracy in food labels and advertisingWorking with agencies and manufacturers to improve food safetyResearching how food and nutrition interact with the body and various conditionsEducating the public (broadly or in specific targeted populations) on nutrition, food safety, and healthy lifestyle practicesDietitians and nutritionists typically work a standard full-time work week in an office or clinic setting.Ã For more on dietetics and what itÃ¢â¬â¢s like to be a dietitian or nutritionist, check out these videos:A Day in the Life: DietitianHow to Become a Registered Dietitian/NutritionistAsk a Nutritionist with Shira LenchewskiIs Being a Nutritionist Right for You?The RequirementsMost dietitians and nutritionists h ave a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree, and have completed a residency, internship, or other form of supervised training. Most states require a license for dietitians and nutritionists, so be sure to check your own stateÃ¢â¬â¢s requirements if youÃ¢â¬â¢d like to start down this career path.The SkillsThe dietetics field calls for a number of special skills and knowledge bases, including:Attention to detailMath and science (particularly biology, food science, and biochemistry)Critical thinkingPatient evaluationAnatomy and physiologyDisease managementPublic health implementationThe PayPer the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the median salary for dietitians/nutritionists is $56,950, or $27.38 per hour. In addition, the field offers a lot of fulfillment for its members. According to a survey conducted by PayScale, the average dietitian is Ã¢â¬Å"extremely satisfiedÃ¢â¬ in his or her career.The OutlookAs mentioned before, the renewed focus on food and nutrition, both on a national a nd personal health level, means that this is a gangbusters-level field for growth. Openings in dietetics are expected to grow at least 16% by 2014, which is significantly faster than average.Interested? APPLY HERE
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
A Doctor of Philosophy or Doctorate More than 54,000 students earned doctoral degrees in 2016, the latest year for which figures are available, a 30 percent increase since 2000, according to theÃ National Science Foundation.Ã A Ph.D., also called a doctorate, is a Doctor of Philosophy degree, which is a misleading moniker because most Ph.D. holders are not philosophers. The term for this increasingly popular degree derives from the original meaning of the wordÃ philosophy, which comes fromÃ the ancient Greek wordÃ philosophia, meaning love of wisdom. What Is a Ph.D.? In that sense, the term Ph.D. is accurate, because the degree has historically been a license to teach, but it also signifies that the holder is an authority, in full command of (a given) subject right up to the boundaries of current knowledge, and able to extend them, saysÃ FindAPhD, an online Ph.D. database. Earning a Ph.D. requires a hefty financial and time commitment- $35,000 to $60,000Ã and two to eight years- as well as research, creating a thesis or dissertation, and possibly some teaching duties. Deciding to pursue a Ph.D. can represent a major life choice. Doctoral candidates require additional schooling after completing a masters program to earn their Ph.D.: They must complete additional coursework, pass comprehensiveÃ exams, and complete an independent dissertation in their field. Once completed, though, a doctoral degree- often called a terminal degree- can open doors for the Ph.D.holder, especially in academia but also in business. Core Courses and Electives To obtain a Ph.D., you need to take a group of core courses as well as electives, totaling about 60 to 62 hours, which are roughly the equivalent of units at the bachelors degree level. For example,Ã Washington State UniversityÃ offers aÃ Ph.D. in crop science. Core courses, which make up about 18 hours, include such subjects as introduction to population genetics, plant transmission genetics, and plant breeding. Additionally, the student must make up the remaining required hours through electives. TheÃ Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public HealthÃ offers a doctoral degree inÃ Biological Sciences in Public Health. After core courses such asÃ laboratory rotations, biological sciences seminars, and coreÃ principles of biostatistics and epidemiology, the Ph.D. candidate is required to take electives in related fields such asÃ advanced respiratory physiology,Ã advanced respiratory physiology, andÃ ecological and epidemiological control of parasitic diseases. Degree-granting institutions across the board want to ensure that those who earn Ph.D.s have broad knowledge in their chosen field. Thesis or Dissertation and Research A Ph.D. also requires students to complete a large scholarly project known as aÃ dissertation, a research report- usually 60-plus pages- which signifies that they are able to make significant independent contributions to their chosen field of study. Students take on the project, also known as aÃ doctoral thesis, after completing the core and elective coursework and passing aÃ comprehensiveÃ examination. Through the dissertation, the student is expected to make a new and creative contribution to a field of study and to demonstrate her expertise. According to theÃ Association of American Medical Colleges, for example, a strong medical dissertation relies heavily on the creation of a specific hypothesis that can be either disproved or supported by data collected through independent student research. Further, it must also contain several key elements starting with an introduction to the problem statement, conceptual framework, and research question as well as references to literature already published on the topic. Students must show that theÃ dissertationÃ is relevant, provides new insight into the chosen field, and is a topic that they can research independently. Financial Aid and Teaching There are several ways to pay for a doctoral degree: scholarships, grants, fellowships, and government loans, as well as teaching.Ã GoGrad, a graduate school information website, provides such examples as the: Science, Mathematics, and Research for Transformation (SMART) Scholarship for Service Program, which providesÃ full tuition and an annual stipend ofÃ $25,000 to $38,000.National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship,Ã a three-year graduate fellowship that is designed to support doctoral students across 15 engineering disciplinesNational Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program, a three-year program that provides an annual stipend of $34,000 and a $12,000 cost-of-education allowance for tuition and fees As it does for bachelors and masters degrees, the federal government also offers severalÃ loan programsÃ to help students finance their Ph.D. studies. You generally apply for these loans by filling out the free application for federal student aid (FAFSA). Students planning to go into teaching after obtaining their doctoral degrees often also supplement their income by teaching undergraduate classes at the schools where they are studying. The University of California, Riverside, for example, offers aÃ teaching award- essentially a stipend applied toward tuition costs- for Ph.D. candidates in English who teach undergraduate, beginning-level, English courses Jobs and Opportunities for Ph.D. Holders Education accounts for a largeÃ percentage doctoral awards, with elementary education, curriculum and instruction, educational leadership and administration, special education, and counselorÃ education/ school counseling topping the list. Most universities in the United States require a Ph.D. for candidates who seek teaching positions, regardless of the department. Many Ph.D. candidates seek the degree, however, to boost their current salaries. For example, a health, sports,Ã and fitness educator at a community college would realize a bump in annual pay for obtaining a Ph.D. The same holds for educational administrators. Most such positions require only a masters degree, but obtaining a Ph.D. generally leads to anÃ annual stipend that school districts add to the annual salary. That same health and fitness instructor at a community college could also move on from a teaching position and become a dean at a community college- a position that requires a Ph.D.- boosting his pay toÃ $120,000 to $160,000Ã a year or more. So, the opportunities for a doctoral degree holder are wide and varied, but the cost and commitment required are significant. Most experts say you should know your future career plans before you make the commitment. If you know what you want to get out of the degree, then the years of required study and sleepless nights may well be worth the investment.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Research paper proposal - Essay Example The two research questions to be explored are: "What is the impact of management style on productivity?Ã¢â¬ and "How does a reward system influence executive function?" The link between management style and productivity is well recognized (Dorgan, Dowdy, and Pippin, 2006; Michael, 2002). What is more interesting to this researcher is the link between reward systems that managers choose to satisfy their organizational expectations and the impact of these reward systems on productivity. These reward systems grew out of a need to give workers an incentive to complete work satisfactorily. Incentives like bonuses, early time-off, and so forth, motivated workers to produce better results much more quickly than when there were no incentives (Camp and Lambert, 2005; Somaya, 2001; Schraeder and Becton, 2008). Beyond incentives, management and leadership style have been seen to also bring about productivity. There is a relationship between management style and the types of incentives they use that also has a bearing on productivity. There are several management styles that include the authoritarian, the participative and the autocratic and the permissive to name a few. This research seeks to measure the efficacy of the participative management style, both in terms of organizational output and worker satisfaction. In analyzing participative management style, it has been found that this type of leadership is also open to certain reward systems more so than other management styles. It is the hope of this research that a correlation will be found between participative management style, incentives and worker productivity. How these systems impact one another will also be explored. Exploring the relationship between management style and productivity is impossible without having a clear definition of what participative management style is and how managers use reward systems. Generally, authors define participative management as a
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Should Regulations for Home Schools be Changed - Essay Example These tests have the purpose of not only ensuring that the guidelines laid out by the appropriate authorities are being met but also the secondary intent of being able to measure unique and dynamic changes in the student body at the regional and state levels. Due to the fact that no such analysis of homeschoolers is performed at the federal level and no benchmarks are set or analyzed, there is practically no knowledge of how this group effects the overall realization of educational development and achievement within the United States. Although many might argue that there is no need for government to interfere with this process due to the fact that it would be more regulation of otherwise private lives, one can also view the alternative argument relating to the fact that the government of the United States is not only responsible for educational development and achievement for its population but also for the development of a skilled and well balanced workforce to meet the key market n eeds that the 21st century provides (Kunzman, 2009). In this way, one can quickly realize that although certain topics such as reading, literature, and mathematics may be taught by a well skilled and educated parent or care-taker, the fact of the matter is that upper level biology, math, and/or lab sciences require resources and facilities that are not available to the average homeschooler. This creates a fundamental problem. Due to the fact that these lab sciences and upper level studies are not able to be taught by the average home school teacher, they risk being glossed over or not taught at all. This further complicates the educational process due to the fact that there are no preparatory life sciences that can... This essay approves that due to the fact that these lab sciences and upper level studies are not able to be taught by the average home school teacher, they risk being glossed over or not taught at all. This further complicates the educational process due to the fact that there are no preparatory life sciences that can adequately be taught within the home school environment. Naturally, if one takes the path that there should be a higher degree of federal regulation of home schooling, there is the problem of the fact that this level of regulation necessarily impedes many rights and privileges of the private citizen. Although the result may be a net positive, the fact of the matter is that the level of infringements on the personal rights and privileges to the private citizen would be multiple. Moreover, the final issue which this analysis will discuss is perhaps something that is the greatest overall concern with respect to the current economic climate that the nation is faced with. This report makes a conclusion that one can see that a powerful argument exists for the regulation of home schooling as a means to ensure that a high quality of educational attainment is made available to each and every child within the United States. However, due to the key concerns over civil rights and the cost of pursuing such a path, it is the opinion of this author that the situation is small enough at this point to warrant the reaction of a federal authority charged with overseeing and regulating the practice.
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Image And Impression Management This sections aims to uncover and analyze past researches that had been done by other researchers on related topics of image and impression management. This chapter, will provide the theoretical foundation for this research. First, the historical background of impression management will be discussed. Second, the definition and scope of impression management will be examined. Review should contain critical evaluation and discussion of other related research. Image management A growing body of research indicates that we engage in image management in various social situations. Most research has focused on image management in face-to-face situations, particularly as it pertains to career success and performance appraisal. Previous studies have focused on how personality traits and certain situational factors affect image management (Boline Turley, 2002, p. 141). Image management can be defined as: a process by which individuals present information about themselves to appear as they wish others to see them (Kacmar et al., 2007, p. 16). Erving Goffman, who studied human interaction, first introduced the idea of impression management. Goffman described the social world as deceptive. In The Presentation of Self and Everyday Life (1959), Goffman describes human social interaction as a theatrical performance, meaning that people act as performers to give off certain impressions in certain social situations (Manning, 2009 p. 8). Therefore, we intentionally mislead people in efforts to give off a certain impression that we feel will benefit us within a specific social situation. Goffman uses the term fabrication to describe the way an individual misleads others (Manning, 2009, p. 9). Through fabrications, we frame ourselves to be who we want to be. Image management is also defined as the process by which people attempt to influence the images that others have of them (Rosenfeld, Giacalone Riordan, 1995). Regardless of the specific context in which it is used, the general goal of image management is to create a particular impression in others minds (Leary Kowalski, 1990; Rosenfeld et al., 1995). According to several theorists (Schlenker, 1980; McFarland, 2005) image management can be both conscious and unconscious. As Leary and Kowalski (1990) acknowledge as well, at one extreme people are unaware of others reactions to them, while on the other extreme people are conscious about the aspects of themselves that others can observe, such as their appearance and behaviour. Since image management behaviour can be learned, habitually and unconsciously, humans engage in impression management behaviour without considering what they are actually doing. With reference to Jones and Pittman (1982), people should be cautious in using image management tactics since one carries the risk that it will be perceived negatively; for every desired image, there is a corresponding undesired image at risk. For instance, an individual using self-promotion would like to be seen as competent, though he risks to be perceived as arrogant instead. In addition, image management research has mostly concentrate on purposive behaviour like verbal, non-verbal, and artificial behaviours that influence the images that other people have of the person. (Schneider, 1981). However, people often exercise image management behaviour without considering their own behaviour. In such instances, image management tactics become over learned habits. As Schlenker (1980) concludes, a great deal of image management behaviour appears to be non-purposive since it occurs automatically without conscious thought or control. Regarding purposive behaviours, Jones and Pittman (1980) have identified ingratiation, self-promotion, intimidation, exemplification, and supplication as image management. In todays world it is very important to understand who is playing which role, how one should act, and why other people are doing what they are doing. We project our image in very different manners: what we do, how we do it, what we say, how we say it, the arrangement of our offices, and our physical appearance, such as clothes and make-up as well as facial expressions. All these behaviors in some way help us define who we are (Rosenfeld et al., 1995, p.4). They form an identity and express what we want and expect from other people around us. These social identities constitute how individuals are defined and regarded in social interaction (Schlenker, 1980, p.69). The general definition used by scholars is that image management is the process through which individuals attempt to influence the impressions other people form of them (Gardner, 1992). Individuals manage their impressions when they wish to present a favorable image of themselves to others (Jones Pittman, 1982). Ways in which individuals manage their impressions can vary from verbal statements to their physical appearance or by using non-verbal gestures and expressions. Some theorists like Schlenker (1980) and Schneider (1981) make a distinction between the terms image management and self-presentation, even though most literature uses these terms interchangeably. Schlenker (1980) classifies image management as the attempt to control images that are projected in real or imagined social interactions while self-presentation is applied to situations in which the created impression is self-relevant (Schlenker, 1980, p.6). Schneider (1981) claims that self-presentation can be seen as a close cousin of image management, but still is dissimilar: Image can be managed by means other than self-presentation, and presentations may be used for goals other than image management (Schneider, 1981, p.25). Schneider (1981) mentions that image of an individual can also be controlled by a third party. Several theorists propose that self-presentation not only attempts to influence the images that others form, but also has an influence on the impression the person has about himself (Greenwald Breckler, 1985; Hogan, Jones Cheek, 1985; Schlenker, 1985). This in fact can be regarded as self-presentation to the self (Leary et al., 1990), as people are motivated to preserve particular beliefs about themselves (Greenwald Breckler, 1985). Overall, image management can be seen as a broader and more encompassing term than self-presentation (Leary et al., 1990). Impression Management Goffmans impression management work has developed and continuous to be a popular research topic addressing studies of identity and social interaction. Many impression management studies use the theory of self-monitoring to measure how anindividual works to achieve a desirable self-image. Self-monitoring can be described as an internal state combining self-observation and self-control (Scher et al., 2007, p. 186). Self-monitoring is an internal process in which a person tries to control the impressions they give off to others as a means of self-presentation (Scher et al., 2007, p. 187). In trying to give off certain impressions of ones self, a person controls their behaviors to ensure that they are socially appropriate. Lennox (1984) describes two sources of information that a person uses to assess how to act: ones personal disposition and situational cues (p. 199). Some people, known as low self-monitors, rely more on their inner states and feelings in assessing the appropriateness o f their behavior while others, known as high self-monitors, tend to respond to their social environments cues when deciding how to behave appropriately (Lennox, 1984, p. 199). High self-monitors adapt their behaviors to specific social situations. They look at the way others are behaving in the immediate social scene for cues on how they should behave. On the contrary, low self-monitors use their internal factors their attitudes, opinions, beliefs, and dispositions as cues on how they should behave in certain situations. Therefore, they are less affected by situational factors than high self-monitors. Their behaviors are more reflective of their personality (Lennox, 1984, p. 199). Studies have shown that high self-monitors are more likely to conform than low self-monitors and show more inconsistency between their behaviors and attitudes (Scher et al., 2007, p. 187). It is thought that high self-monitors are more concerned with what others think of them than low self-monitors, maki ng them more likely to conform in social situations (Sher et al., 2007, p. 190). Studies show that high self-monitors are more concerned with what others think and are more likely than low self-monitors to achieve desired images while avoiding undesired ones (Turnley Bolino, 2001, p. 251). They are skillful in controlling their self-image and often use impression management tactics. Jones and Pittman (1982) came up with a list of impression management tactics (Turnley Bolino, 2001, p. 352). These includes: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Ingratiation using flattery in efforts to get others to view you favorably Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Self Promotion displaying your successes and skills in efforts to appear competent Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Exemplification striving to be seen as dedicated by exerting yourself to the fullest Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Supplication displaying your needs and shortcoming in efforts to appear needy Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Intimidation striving to be seen as threatening or dangerous by intimidating others Turnley and Bolinos study (2001) found that high self-monitors would more frequently achieve the desired image of likeable when using ingratiation, competent when using self promotion and dedicated when using exemplification than low self-monitors (Turnley Bolino, p. 353). A similar study done by Bolino Turnley (2003) found evidence that high self-monitors prefer to use positive impression management tactics (ingratiation, self promotion and exemplification) to negative tactics (supplication and intimidation) (p. 141). This same study also suggests that individuals who engage in positive impression management tactics are seen by others as more favorable than those who use all types of impression management tactics (Bolino Turnley, 2003, p. 141). This study asserts that women are less aggressive in using impression management tactics than men and therefore, are more likely to engage in positive tactics rather than negative ones (Bolino Turnley, 2003, p. 141). Bolino Turnley suggest that this may be because women follow the less aggressive tactics of the female gender role, which discourages aggressive or assertive behavior (Bolino Turnley, 2003, p. 148). Therefore, men are more active and aggressive in managing their impressions while women are mor e likely to do so passively (Bolino Turnley, 2003, p. 148). Siibaks study used the self-discrepancy theory to explain the reasons behind managing ones social media image. This theory asserts that individuals have three self-domains: The Actual Self an individuals representation of the attributes that he or she believes he/she possesses The Ideal Self an individuals representation of the attributes that someone (yourself or another person) wants you to possess The Ought Self and individuals representation of the attributes that someone (yourself or another person) believes you should possess (Higgins, 1987, p. 319) The Ought Self comes into play in impression management. Individuals seek to represent the Ought Self by emphasizing the attributes they believe a person ought to possess in a certain social situation. Many studies have focused on the Cultivation Theory as it pertains to self-image and distorted body image problems. Most of these studies look at television and magazines and their role in making females believe ideal beauty means excessive thinness. This study is more focused on exploring whether image management affects womens perceptions of ideal beauty. A study done on college women using print advertisements found that making social comparisons to ultra-thin models is significantly associated with greater internalization of the thin ideal and decreased satisfaction with ones own appearance (Engeln Maddox, 2005, p. 1114). This study uses a sociocultural model that describes body image problems and disordered eating as a result of the continued exposure to thin images. This prolonged exposure reinforces the Western ideal of thinness being attractive (Engeln-Maddox, 2005, p. 1115). A similar study was done on the effects of fashion magazines on body dissatisfaction and disordered eating among females. This study also connects the medias promotion of the thin ideal to body distortion issues that remain at the center of anorexia and bulimia (Shaw, 1995, p. 15). It compared adolescents and adults and their responses to thin images present in magazines (Shaw, 1995, p. 20). Age, BMI and greater bulimic tendencies were positively correlated with greater responsiveness to images of thin models among adolescents (Shaw, 1995, p. 20). The adults, although still responsive to the thin ideal, were less responsive than adolescents (Shaw, 1995, p. 21). This is thought to be in part because adults, unlike adolescents, are not in a developmental stage in which they are concerned with collecting personal identity information (Shaw, 1995, p. 21). Shaw (2005) uses Social Identity Theory, which states that ones social identity is positively related to the degree of social attractiveness conferred by their membership of a particular social group to describe why females have greater body dissatisfaction after being exposed to ultra-thin magazine models (p. 21). Shaw also explains that our culture provides cues that teach females at an early age that they are judged by their physical beauty (p. 21). Therefore, females work to conform to the ideal images of beauty that our society has spelled out for them. If they are not able to conform to this ideal image of beauty, they may experience body dissatisfaction, which may lead to disordered eating habits. One study looked at the role of the peer environment and its ability to provide a subculture that emphasizes the importance of thinness throughÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ peer pressure to diet and be thin and teasing from peers about weight and shape (Gerner Wilson, 2005, p. 313). Female adolescents believe being thin is connected to a better popularity standing among friends and increases the perception of being dateable (Gerner Wilson, 2005, p. 314). This is linked to disordered dieting, poor self-image evaluations, and bulimia (Gerner Wilson, 2005, pg. 314). This study also suggests girls friendships with males, more than females, are closely tied to how they feel about their bodies, reflecting a sociocultural emphasis on the importance of physical attractiveness for successful relationships with males (Gerner Wilson, 2005, p. 318). 2.2.1 Historical review on Impression management A distinction will be made between before and after the 1980s. The idea that people actively manage their image that others form of them has existed for centuries, but it was in the early 1900s that social philosophers incorporated these ideas into their thinking. It was only during the 1980s that the topic of image management started to become widely accepted as an element of organizational life and communications. 2.2.1 Impression management before the 1980s The concept of image and impression management relates back to prehistoric and primitive people who also were concerned about self-presentation. Cosmetics, clothing, jewelry and other aids to physical attractiveness were universally used to present positive identities to others (Tedeschi, 1981, p.xv). The idea that people project identities to one another and form identities from the reactions of others to them, has existed for a long period of time, yet it has not been until this century that social philosophers have incorporated this interactive process into their thinking (Cooley, 1902; Mead, 1934) 2.2.2 Impression management after the 1980s Prior to the 1980s generally social psychologists regarded impression management as a peripheral concept. It was rarely regarded as a fundamental interpersonal process on its own (Schlenker Weigold, 1992, p.135) . In the second half of the 1980s interest for impression management started to increase and the concept of impression management became more important. In 1989 two books were published by Giacalone and Rosenfeld about impression management in organizations. These two books served as source books for what is nowadays the distinctive field of organizational impression management (Rosenfeld et al., 1995). Impression management in organizations consists of strategic communications designed to establish, maintain, or protect desired identities (Rosenfeld et al., 1995). Since the 1980s impression management has been studied in organizational contexts such as leader-member exchange, job interviews and performance appraisal. The study of impression management in organizations is of great importance (Bozeman Kacmar, 1997, p.9). As popularity among researchers and practitioners grew it also started to be viewed as a mainstream rather than a peripheral concept. It is difficult to understand how impression management could have been overlooked in many theoretical discussions. Incorporating impression management into current research and practice is started to provide a better understanding of how organizational processes were to a large extent affected by individuals concerns over how they were being perceived by others (Rosenfeld et al., 1995). Most social psychological investigations have focused on intentional behaviors that decorate or modify ongoing behavior. Impression management is assumed to become more intentional and focused when people believe that they will gain valued outcomes by encouraging certain impressions in others (Schlenker Weigold, 1992). Since the 80s analysts have applied and studied the concept of impression management to a wide range of social phenomena, such as attitude change, nonverbal behavior, social anxiety and recently also to concepts such as eating behavior, organizational behavior. While in specifics being different, the analyses share in common the idea that people attempt to control information for one or more salient audiences in ways that try to facilitate goal-achievement (Schlenker Weigold, 1992, p.136). The concept of impression, specifically in the field of organizational life, has received much more importance than ever before. Impression management is a commonly occurring part of organizational life and it is seen as essential to effective organizational communication (Rosenfeld et al., 1995). In the next section a look will be taken at the motives people have to engage or use impression management. 2.3 Motives to engage in impression management Being skilled in the process of impression management is becoming more significant for managers and it is especially true in work settings with high pressure and where quick decisions need to be made in a dynamic environment. Individuals who are not aware of this aspect of organizational life run the risk of performing poorly, or even being moved to lower positions in the organization (Gardner, 1992). The statement and explanation given above by Gardner might in some way explain why people would attempt to use impression management at work with their colleagues. Yet in general people wish to be perceived as intelligent, friendly and morally good (Rosenfeld, GiacaloneTedeschi, 1983, p.60). This explanation is given for the question of why people laugh more often at humorous stimuli when others are present than when they are own their own, the answer being to establish an identity of oneself as a friendly person. People engage in impression management for many reasons that are influenced by social, personal and situational factors. Some theorists describe the process as a quick cost-benefit analysis (Schlenker, 1980). At the same time people are assessing the benefits that might be achieved by presenting one image rather then another one, they are also considering the costs of presenting that particular image (Rosenfeld et al.,1995). Some situations in which impression management is less likely to occur were described by Jones and Pittman (1980). Under conditions of high task involvement, where the individual becomes absorbed in the task itself. In another research on the use of impression management in assessment centers it was mentioned that the process of impression management required much of an individuals cognitive resources and so it could interfere with effective performance of the individual (McFarland, Ryan, Kriska, 2003). Other situations mentioned by Jones and Pittman (1980) are purely expressive behaviors such as anger and joy and situations in which the person is most of all concerned with presenting his/her true self, such as therapy sessions (Gardner Martinko, 1988). Next to situational factors also social and personal factors influence the motives of individuals to engage in impression management. Leary and Kowalski (1990) believed that impression management could be used to increase personal well-being in three interrelated goals. First of all by maximizing ones reward-cost ratio in social relations. As mentioned earlier, self-presentation also allows individuals to optimize their benefit-cost ratio when dealing with others (Schlenker, 1980). Being able to form a good impression will increase the probability of a desired outcome, be it a interpersonal one such as friendship or power or be it material such as raise in salary due to being seen as more competent (Leary Kowalski, 1990, p.37). The second goal that Leary and Kowalski (1990) mention is enhancing ones self esteem. People might employ in impression management, to regulate their self-esteem in a two-fold manner. One reason was that reactions that other individuals have will positively (compliments) or negatively (criticism) affect your self-esteem. So individuals will act in a manner to be able to inflate their self-esteem by trying to receive positive feedback (Leary Kowalski, 1990, p.37). A second reason is that the self esteem of individuals is also influenced by the self-evaluation of their performances and the feedback that you as an individuals will expect to receive from others (Leary Kowalski, 1990). The third and final goal proposed by Leary and Kowalski (1990) is facilitating the development of desired identities. According to Cooley (1902) and Mead (1934) our identity is in the end derived from society, and individuals sometimes engage in certain behaviors to indicate the ownership of such identity-relevant characteristics (Leary Kowalski, 1990). People may even engage in impression management activities as protection if they feel there is a threat to their social image. As can be seen above there are several motives for people to engage in impression managing. Aside of situational and social factors there are also some personality traits that will affect the degree of impression management being used. For example the extent to which an individual possess the trait of machiavellianism might have an impact on the degree of impression management being used. In todays world it is defined as one who employs aggressive, manipulative, exploiting and devious moves in order to achie ve personal and organizational objectives (Calhoon, 1969, p. 241). From this definition it seems obvious to conclude that the higher the score for machiavellianism the more likely the individual will engage in impression management to achieve personal objectives. A second and final trait that can be decisive for the degree in which an individual engages in impression management is self-monitoring. Individuals differ in the way they monitor their self-presentation and expressive behavior (Snyder, 1974, p.536). Individuals with high levels of self-monitoring can effectively use this skill to create impressions they want. Furthermore these individuals are also better at purposely communicating and expressing emotion in verbal and non verbal manners (Snyder, 1974). Before reaching the overall conclusion of this chapter it can be said that indeed personality as well as social and situational factors play a clear role and deciding what individual will or will not use impression management in certain situations. 2.4 Conclusion In this chapter an in depth look was taken at the historical background of impression management and it can be said that since the mid 80s the topic has increasingly received attention from social psychologists and the awareness of its importance is also dramatically increasing in organizational life. Furthermore a look was taken at the several definitions of the concept by different researchers. The definition that will be employed throughout this paper will be the process through which individuals attempt to influence the impressions other people form of them. In the final part of this chapter the several factors that might affect the motives of individuals to engage in impression management where studied. It was found that several situational, social and personality factors affect an individuals decision to employ impression management. In the next chapter a look will be taken at the choice of the type of impression management style or tactic that and individuals will choose.
Friday, January 17, 2020
Alberta was waiting for me in the front office of the guardians' administrative building. Alberta's role as captain here was remarkable considering the lower numbers of women in our ranks. She was in her fifties and one of the toughest women I'd met. Her sandy hair was showing some gray, and years of working outdoors had weathered her skin. Ã¢â¬Å"Welcome back, Rose,Ã¢â¬ she said, standing up at my approach. She certainly didn't hug me, and her manner was businesslike, but the fact that she used my first name was a generous gesture for her. That, and I thought I saw a small spark of relief and happiness in her eyes. Ã¢â¬Å"Let's go to my office.Ã¢â¬ I'd never been there. Any disciplinary issues I had with the guardians were usually addressed in committee. Unsurprisingly, the office was spotless, everything arranged with military efficiency. We sat on opposite sides of her desk, and I braced myself for an interrogation. Ã¢â¬Å"Rose,Ã¢â¬ she said, leaning toward me. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm going to be blunt with you. I'm not going to give you lectures or demand any explanations. Honestly, since you aren't my student anymore, I don't have the right to ask or tell you anything.Ã¢â¬ It was like what Adrian had said. Ã¢â¬Å"You can lecture,Ã¢â¬ I told her. Ã¢â¬Å"I've always respected you and want to hear what you have to say.Ã¢â¬ The ghost of a smile flashed on her face. Ã¢â¬Å"All right, here it is. You screwed up.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Wow. You weren't kidding about bluntness.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The reasons don't matter. You shouldn't have left. You shouldn't have dropped out. Your education and training are too valuable-no matter how much you think you know-and you are too talented to risk throwing away your future.Ã¢â¬ I almost laughed. Ã¢â¬Å"To tell you the truth? I'm not sure what my future is anymore.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Which is why you need to graduate.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But I dropped out.Ã¢â¬ She snorted. Ã¢â¬Å"Then drop back in!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I-what? How?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"With paperwork. Just like everything else in the world.Ã¢â¬ To be honest, I hadn't known what I'd do once I got back here. My immediate concern was Lissa-to be with her and make sure she was okay. I knew I couldn't officially be her guardian anymore, but I'd figured once we were together, no one could stop her from hanging out with a friend. I'd be her hired bodyguard, so to speak, kind of like what Abe had. And in the meantime, I'd bum around campus like Adrian. But to enroll again? Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ ¦ I missed a month. Maybe more.Ã¢â¬ My days were scattered. It was the first week of May, and I'd left near the end of March, on my birthday. What was that? Five weeks? Almost six? Ã¢â¬Å"You missed two years and managed to catch up. I have faith in you. And even if you have trouble, graduating with low grades is better than not graduating at all.Ã¢â¬ I tried to imagine myself back in this world. Had it really only been a little over a month? ClassesÃ¢â¬ ¦ day-to-day intrigueÃ¢â¬ ¦ how could I just go back to that? How could I return to that life after seeing the way Dimitri's family lived, after being with Dimitri and losing him-again. Would he have said he loved me? Ã¢â¬Å"I don't know what to say,Ã¢â¬ I told Alberta. Ã¢â¬Å"This is kind of a lot to take in.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Well, you should decide quickly. The sooner you're back in class, the better.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"They'll really let me?Ã¢â¬ That was the part I found a little unbelievable. Ã¢â¬Å"I'll let you,Ã¢â¬ she said. Ã¢â¬Å"No way am I letting someone like you get away. And now that Lazar is goneÃ¢â¬ ¦ well, things are crazy around here. No one's going to give me much trouble in filing the paperwork.Ã¢â¬ Her wry smile slipped a little. Ã¢â¬Å"And if they do give us any troubleÃ¢â¬ ¦ I've been made to understand that you have a benefactor who can pull a few favors to smooth everything over.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"A benefactor,Ã¢â¬ I repeated flatly. Ã¢â¬Å"A benefactor who wears flashy scarves and gold jewelry?Ã¢â¬ She shrugged. Ã¢â¬Å"No one I know. Don't even know his name-only that he'll threaten to withhold a considerable donation to the school if you aren't let back in. If you want in.Ã¢â¬ Yeah. Deals and blackmail. I was pretty sure I knew who my benefactor was. Ã¢â¬Å"Give me some time to think about it. I'll decide soon-I promise.Ã¢â¬ She frowned, thoughtful, and then gave a sharp nod. Ã¢â¬Å"All right.Ã¢â¬ We both stood up, and she walked me toward the building's entrance. I glanced over at her. Ã¢â¬Å"Hey, if I do graduateÃ¢â¬ ¦ do you think there's ever any way I could be in line to be Lissa's guardian officially again? I know they've already picked out people for her and that I'm in, ah, a bit of disgrace.Ã¢â¬ We stopped by the outer doors, and Alberta rested a hand on her hip. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't know. We can certainly try. The situation's gotten a lot more complicated.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah, I know,Ã¢â¬ I said sadly, recalling Tatiana's high-handed actions. Ã¢â¬Å"But, like I said, we'll do what we can. What I said about graduating with low grades? You won't. Well, maybe in math and science-but that's out of my control. You'll be the best among the novices, though. I'll work with you myself.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Okay,Ã¢â¬ I said, realizing what a concession that was on her part. Ã¢â¬Å"Thank you.Ã¢â¬ I had just stepped outside when she called my name. Ã¢â¬Å"Rose?Ã¢â¬ I caught the door and glanced back. Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah?Ã¢â¬ Alberta's face was gentleÃ¢â¬ ¦ something I'd never seen before. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm sorry,Ã¢â¬ she said. Ã¢â¬Å"Sorry for everything that happened. And that none of us could do anything about it.Ã¢â¬ I saw in her eyes then that she knew about Dimitri and me. I wasn't sure how. Maybe she'd heard it after the battle; maybe she'd guessed beforehand. Regardless, there was no chastisement in her face, only sincere sorrow and empathy. I gave her a brief nod of acknowledgment and went outside. I found Christian the next day, but our conversation was brief. He was on his way to meet with some of his trainees and was running late. But he hugged me and seemed genuinely happy to have me back. It showed how far we'd come, considering the antagonistic relationship we'd had when we first met. Ã¢â¬Å"About time,Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"Lissa and Adrian get the market share on worrying about you, but they're not the only ones. And someone needs to put Adrian in his place, you know. I can't do it all the time.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Thanks. It kills me to say this, but I missed you too. No one's sarcasm compares to yours in Russia.Ã¢â¬ My amusement faded. Ã¢â¬Å"But since you mentioned Lissa-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"No, no.Ã¢â¬ He held up his hand by way of protest, face hardening. Ã¢â¬Å"I knew you were going to go there.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Christian! She loves you. You know that what happened wasn't her fault-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"I know that,Ã¢â¬ he interrupted. Ã¢â¬Å"But it doesn't mean it didn't hurt. Rose, I know it's in your nature to rush in and say what everyone else is afraid to, but pleaseÃ¢â¬ ¦ not this time. I need time to figure things out.Ã¢â¬ I had to bite back a lot of comments. Lissa had mentioned Christian in our talk yesterday. What had happened between them was one of her biggest regrets-probably the thing she hated Avery the most for. Lissa wanted to approach him and make up, but he'd kept his distance. And yes, he was right. It wasn't my place to rush in-yet. But I did need them to fix this. So I respected his wishes and simply nodded. Ã¢â¬Å"Okay. For now.Ã¢â¬ My last words made his smile twist a little. Ã¢â¬Å"Thanks. Look, I've got to head off. If you ever want to show these kids how to kick ass the old-fashioned way, come by sometime. Jill would pass out if she saw you again.Ã¢â¬ I told him I would and let him go on his way, seeing as I had places to be. No way was I finished with him, though. I had a dinner date with Adrian and Lissa, up in one of the lounges in guest housing. Talking to Christian had made me late, and I hurried through the building's lobby, barely taking note of my surroundings. Ã¢â¬Å"Always in a rush,Ã¢â¬ a voice said. Ã¢â¬Å"It's a wonder anyone can get you to stop moving.Ã¢â¬ I came to a halt and turned, my eyes wide. Ã¢â¬Å"MomÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ She stood leaning against the wall, arms crossed, with her cropped auburn hair as curly and messy as ever. Her face, weathered like Alberta's from being out in the elements, was filled with relief and-love. There was no anger, no condemnation. I had never been so happy to see her in my life. I was in her arms in an instant, resting my head on her chest even though she was shorter than me. Ã¢â¬Å"Rose, Rose,Ã¢â¬ she said into my hair. Ã¢â¬Å"Don't ever do this again. Please.Ã¢â¬ I pulled back and looked at her face, astonished to see tears spilling from her eyes. I had seen my mother tear up in the wake of the attack on the school, but never, never had I seen her outright cry. Certainly not over me. It made me want to cry too, and I uselessly tried to dry her face with Abe's scarf. Ã¢â¬Å"No, no, it's okay. Don't cry,Ã¢â¬ I said, taking on an odd role reversal. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm sorry. I won't do it again. I missed you so much.Ã¢â¬ It was true. I loved Olena Belikova. I thought she was kind and wonderful and would cherish the memories of her comforting me about Dimitri and always going out of her way to feed me. In another life, she could have been my mother-in-law. In this one, I would always regard her as a kind of foster mother. But she wasn't my real mother. Janine Hathaway was. And standing there with her, I was happy-so, so happy-that I was her daughter. She wasn't perfect, but no one was, as I was learning. She was, however, good and brave and fierce and compassionate-and I think she understood me more than I realized sometimes. If I could be half the woman she was, my life would be well spent. Ã¢â¬Å"I was so worried,Ã¢â¬ she told me, recovering herself. Ã¢â¬Å"Where did you go-I mean, I know now you were in RussiaÃ¢â¬ ¦ but why?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I thoughtÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ I swallowed and again saw Dimitri with my stake in his chest. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, there was something I had to do. I thought I had to do it on my own.Ã¢â¬ I wasn't sure about that last part now. True, I had accomplished my goal on my own, but I was realizing now how many people loved me and were with me. Who knew how differently things might have turned out if I'd asked for help? Maybe it would have been easier. Ã¢â¬Å"I have a lot of questions,Ã¢â¬ she warned. Her voice had toughened, and I smiled in spite of myself. Now she was back to the Janine Hathaway I knew. And I loved her for it. Her eyes flitted to my face and then to my neck, and I saw her stiffen. For a panicked moment, I wondered if Oksana had missed healing one of the bite marks. The thought of my mother seeing what I'd lowered myself to in Siberia made my heart stop. Instead, she reached out and touched the bright colors of the cashmere scarf, her face filled with wonder as much as shock. Ã¢â¬Å"ThisÃ¢â¬ ¦ this is Ibrahim's scarfÃ¢â¬ ¦ it's a family heirloomÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No, it belongs to this mobster guy named AbeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ I stopped as soon as the name crossed my lips. Abe. Ibrahim. Hearing them both out loud made me realize how similar they were. AbeÃ¢â¬ ¦ Abe was short for Abraham in English. Abraham, Ibrahim. There was only a slight variation in the vowels. Abraham was a common enough name in the U.S., but I'd heard Ibrahim only once before, spoken in scorn by Queen Tatiana when referring to someone my mother had been involved withÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"Mom,Ã¢â¬ I said disbelievingly. Ã¢â¬Å"You know Abe.Ã¢â¬ She was still touching the scarf, eyes filled with emotion once more-but a different kind than she'd had for me. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, Rose. I know him.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Please don't tell meÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Oh, man. Why couldn't I have been an illegitimate half-royal like Robert Doru? Or even the mail-man's daughter? Ã¢â¬Å"Please don't tell me Abe is my fatherÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ She didn't have to tell me. It was all over her face, her expression dreamily recalling some other time and place-some time and place that had undoubtedly involved my conception. Ugh. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh God,Ã¢â¬ I said. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm Zmey's daughter. Zmey Junior. Zmeyette, even.Ã¢â¬ That got her attention. She looked up at me. Ã¢â¬Å"What on earth are you talking about?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing,Ã¢â¬ I said. I was stunned, trying desperately to assimilate this new piece of data into my worldview. I summoned a picture of that sly, bearded face, trying to hunt down family resemblance. Everyone said my facial features were like my mom's when she was youngerÃ¢â¬ ¦ but my coloring, the dark hair and eyesÃ¢â¬ ¦ yes, that was the same as Abe's. I'd always known my father was Turkish. That was Abe's mystery accent, the one not Russian but still foreign to my ears. Ibrahim must be the Turkish version of Abraham. Ã¢â¬Å"How?Ã¢â¬ I asked. Ã¢â¬Å"How in the world did you get involved with someone like that?Ã¢â¬ She looked offended. Ã¢â¬Å"Ibrahim is a wonderful man. You don't know him like I do.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Obviously.Ã¢â¬ I hesitated. Ã¢â¬Å"MomÃ¢â¬ ¦ you must know. What is it that Abe does for a living?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He's a businessman. And he knows and does favors for a lot of people, which is why he has the influence he does.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But what kind of business? I've heard it's illegal. It's notÃ¢â¬ ¦ oh God. Please tell me he isn't selling blood whores or something.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What?Ã¢â¬ She looked shocked. Ã¢â¬Å"No. Of course not.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But he is doing illegal things.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Who's to say? He's never actually been caught for anything illegal.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I swear, you almost sounded like you were trying to make a joke.Ã¢â¬ I never would have expected her to defend a criminal, but I knew better than most how love could drive us to crazy acts. Ã¢â¬Å"If he wants to tell you, he'll tell you. End of story, Rose. Besides, you certainly keep your share of secrets too. You two have a lot in common.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Are you kidding? He's arrogant, sarcastic, likes to intimidate people, and-oh.Ã¢â¬ Okay. Maybe she had a point. A small half-smile played upon her lips. Ã¢â¬Å"I never really expected you to meet this way. I never expected you to meet, period. We both thought it'd be best if he wasn't in your life.Ã¢â¬ A new thought occurred to me. Ã¢â¬Å"It was you, wasn't it? You hired him to find me.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What? I contacted him when you went missingÃ¢â¬ ¦ but I certainly didn't hire him.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Then who did?Ã¢â¬ I wondered. Ã¢â¬Å"He said he was working for someone.Ã¢â¬ Her lovestruck, reminiscent smile turned wry. Ã¢â¬Å"Rose, Ibrahim Mazur doesn't work for anyone. He's not the kind of person you can hire.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But he saidÃ¢â¬ ¦ wait. Why was he following me? Are you saying he was lying?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Well,Ã¢â¬ she admitted, Ã¢â¬Å"it wouldn't be the first time. If he was following you, it wasn't because anyone was making him or paying him. He did it because he wanted to. He wanted to find you and make sure you were okay. He made sure all his contacts knew to look out for you.Ã¢â¬ I replayed my brief history with Abe. Shadowy, taunting, infuriating. But he'd driven out into the night to get me when I'd been attacked, been adamant in his goal to get me back to school and safety, and had apparently gifted me with an heirloom because he thought I'd get cold on my way home. He's a wonderful man, my mother had said. I supposed there were worse fathers to have. Ã¢â¬Å"Rose, there you are. What's taking so long?Ã¢â¬ My mom and I turned as Lissa entered the lobby, her face lighting up when she saw me. Ã¢â¬Å"Come on both of you. The food's going to get cold. And you won't believe what Adrian got.Ã¢â¬ My mom and I exchanged a quick look, neither of us needing to speak. We had a long conversation ahead of us, but it would have to wait. I have no idea how Adrian had arranged it, but when we got to the lounge, there was Chinese food set up. The Academy almost never served it, and even then, it just never tastedÃ¢â¬ ¦ right. But this was the good stuff. Bowls and bowls of sweet-and-sour chicken and egg foo young. In a corner garbage can, I saw some restaurant takeout cartons with an address in Missoula printed on the side. Ã¢â¬Å"How the hell did you get that here?Ã¢â¬ I demanded. Not only that, it was still warm. Ã¢â¬Å"Don't question these things, Rose,Ã¢â¬ said Adrian, loading up his plate with pork fried rice. He seemed very pleased with himself. Ã¢â¬Å"Just roll with it. Once Alberta gets your paperwork settled, we'll eat like this every day.Ã¢â¬ I stopped mid-bite. Ã¢â¬Å"How do you know about that?Ã¢â¬ He merely winked. Ã¢â¬Å"When you have nothing to do but hang out on campus all the time, you kind of pick things up.Ã¢â¬ Lissa glanced between the two of us. She'd been in class all day, and we hadn't had much time to talk. Ã¢â¬Å"What's this?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Alberta wants me to enroll again and graduate,Ã¢â¬ I explained. Lissa nearly dropped her plate. Ã¢â¬Å"Then do it!Ã¢â¬ My mother looked equally startled. Ã¢â¬Å"She'll let you?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"That's what she told me,Ã¢â¬ I said. Ã¢â¬Å"Then do it!Ã¢â¬ my mother exclaimed. Ã¢â¬Å"You know,Ã¢â¬ mused Adrian, Ã¢â¬Å"I kind of liked the idea of us going on the road together.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Whatever,Ã¢â¬ I shot back. Ã¢â¬Å"You probably wouldn't let me drive.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Stop this.Ã¢â¬ My mother was firmly back to her old self, no grief over her daughter's departure or wistfulness for a lost lover. Ã¢â¬Å"You need to take this seriously. Your future's at stake.Ã¢â¬ She nodded toward Lissa. Ã¢â¬Å"Her future's at stake. Finishing your education here and going on to be a guardian is the-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Yes,Ã¢â¬ I said. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes?Ã¢â¬ she asked, puzzled. I smiled. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, I agree.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You agreeÃ¢â¬ ¦ with me?Ã¢â¬ I don't think my mom could ever recall that happening. Neither could I, for that matter. Ã¢â¬Å"Yup. I'll take the trials, graduate, and become as respectable a member of society as I can. Not that it sounds like much fun,Ã¢â¬ I teased. I kept my tone light, but inside, I knew I needed this. I needed to be back with people who loved me. I needed a new purpose, or else I would never get over Dimitri. I would never stop seeing his face or hearing his voice. Beside me, Lissa gasped and clasped her hands together. Her joy flooded into me. Adrian didn't wear his emotions as openly, but I could see he too was pleased at having me around. My mom still looked kind of stunned. I think she was used to me being unreasonable-which, usually, I was. Ã¢â¬Å"You'll really stay?Ã¢â¬ she asked. Ã¢â¬Å"Good God.Ã¢â¬ I laughed. Ã¢â¬Å"How many times do I have to say it? Yes, I'll go back to school.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And stay?Ã¢â¬ she prompted. Ã¢â¬Å"The full two and a half months?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Isn't that implied?Ã¢â¬ Her face was hard-and very mom like. Ã¢â¬Å"I want to know for sure you aren't going to up and run away again. You'll stay and finish school no matter what? Stay until you graduate? Do you promise?Ã¢â¬ I met her eyes, surprised at her intensity. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, yes. I promise.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Excellent,Ã¢â¬ she said. Ã¢â¬Å"You'll be glad you did this down the road.Ã¢â¬ Her words were guardian-formal, but in her eyes, I saw love and joy. We finished dinner and helped stack dishes for the building's cleaning service. While scraping uneaten food into a trash can, I felt Adrian beside me. Ã¢â¬Å"This is very domestic of you,Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"It's kind of hot, really. Giving me all sorts of fantasies about you in an apron vacuuming my house.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, Adrian, how I've missed you,Ã¢â¬ I said with an eye roll. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't suppose you're helping?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Nah. I helped when I ate everything on my plate. No mess that way.Ã¢â¬ He paused. Ã¢â¬Å"And yes, you're welcome.Ã¢â¬ I laughed. Ã¢â¬Å"You know, it's a good thing you didn't say much when I promised Mom I'd stay here. I might have decided otherwise.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Not sure if you could have stood up to her. Your mom seems like someone who gets her way a lot.Ã¢â¬ He cast a covert look to where Lissa and my mom stood talking across the room. He lowered his voice. Ã¢â¬Å"It must run in the family. In fact, maybe I should get her help on something.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Getting a hold of illegal cigarettes?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Asking her daughter out.Ã¢â¬ I nearly dropped the plate I held. Ã¢â¬Å"You've asked me out tons of times.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Not really. I've made inappropriate suggestions and frequently pushed for nudity. But I've never asked you out on a real date. And, if memory serves, you did say you'd give me a fair chance once I let you clean out my trust fund.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I didn't clean it out,Ã¢â¬ I scoffed. But standing there, looking at him, I remembered that I had said that if I survived my quest for Dimitri, I'd give Adrian a shot. I would have said anything to get the money I needed then, but now, I saw Adrian through new eyes. I wasn't ready to marry him by any stretch of the imagination, nor did I fully consider him reliable boyfriend material. I didn't even know if I wanted a boyfriend ever. But he had been a good friend to me and everyone else throughout all of this chaos. He'd been kind and steady, and yeah, I couldn't deny itÃ¢â¬ ¦ even with a fading black eye, he was still extraordinarily handsome. And while it shouldn't have mattered, Lissa had gotten it out from him that a lot of his infatuation with Avery had been compulsion-induced. He'd liked her and hadn't been ruling out a romantic attachment, but her powers had cranked up the intensity more than he actually felt. Or so he claimed. If I were a guy and all that had happened to me, I'd probably say I'd been under the influence of magic too. Yet from the way he looked at me now, I found it hard to believe anyone had taken my place for him in this last month or so. Ã¢â¬Å"Make me an offer,Ã¢â¬ I said at last. Ã¢â¬Å"Write it up, and give me a point-by-point outline of why you're a good would-be suitor.Ã¢â¬ He started to laugh, then saw my face. Ã¢â¬Å"Seriously? That's like homework. There's a reason I'm not in college.Ã¢â¬ I snapped my fingers. Ã¢â¬Å"Get to it, Ivashkov. I want to see you put in a good day's work.Ã¢â¬ I expected a joke or a brush-off until later, but instead, he said, Ã¢â¬Å"Okay.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Okay?Ã¢â¬ Now I felt like my mom had earlier, when I'd quickly agreed with her. Ã¢â¬Å"Yep. I'm going to go back to my room right now to start drafting my assignment.Ã¢â¬ I stared incredulously as he reached for his coat. I had never seen Adrian move that fast when any kind of labor was involved. Oh no. What had I gotten myself into? He suddenly paused and reached into his coat pocket with an exasperated smile. Ã¢â¬Å"Actually, I already practically wrote you an essay. Nearly forgot.Ã¢â¬ He produced a piece of folded paper and waved it in the air. Ã¢â¬Å"You have got to get your own phone. I'm not going to be your secretary anymore.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What is that?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Some foreign guy called me earlierÃ¢â¬ ¦ said my number was in his phone's memory.Ã¢â¬ Again, Adrian eyed Lissa and my mom. They were still deep in conversation. Ã¢â¬Å"He said he had a message for you and didn't want me to tell anyone else. He made me write it out and read it back to him. You're the only person I'd do that for, you know. I think I'm going to mention it when I write up my dating proposal.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Will you just hand it over?Ã¢â¬ He gave me the note with a wink, sketched me a bow, and then said goodbye to Lissa and my mom. I kind of wondered if he really was going to go write up a dating proposal. Mostly, my attention was on the note. I had no doubt who had called him. I'd used Abe's phone to dial Adrian in Novosibirsk and had later told Abe about Adrian's financial involvement in my trip. Apparently, my father-ugh, that was still an unreal thought-had decided that made Adrian trustworthy, though I wondered why my mom couldn't have been used as a messenger. I unfolded the note, and it took me a few seconds to decipher Adrian's writing. If he did write me a dating proposal, I really hoped he would type it. The note read: Sent a message to Robert's brother. He told me there was nothing I could offer that would make him reveal Robert's location-and believe me, I have much to offer. But he said as long as he had to spend the rest of his life in there, then the information would die with him. Thought you'd like to know. It was hardly the essay Adrian had made it out to be. It was also a bit cryptic, but then, Abe wouldn't want its contents easily understandable to Adrian. To me, the meaning was clear. Robert's brother was Victor Dashkov. Abe had somehow gotten a message to Victor in whatever horrible, remote prison he was locked away in. (Somehow, it didn't surprise me that Abe could pull that off.) Abe had no doubt attempted one of his trades with Victor in order to find out where Robert was, but Victor had refused. No surprise there either. Victor wasn't the most helpful of people, and I couldn't entirely blame him now. The guy was locked up for life Ã¢â¬Å"in thereÃ¢â¬ -in prison. What could anyone offer a condemned man that would really make a difference in his life? I sighed and put the note away, somehow touched that Abe had done this for me, as futile as it was. And again, the same argument came to mind. Even if Victor had given up Robert's location, what did it matter? The farther I got from the events in Russia, the more ridiculous it became to even consider turning a Strigoi back to his original form. Only true death could free them, only deathÃ¢â¬ ¦ My mom's voice saved me before I could begin reliving the bridge scene once more in my head. She told me she had to leave but promised we'd talk later. As soon as she was gone, Lissa and I made sure everything was set in the lounge before heading off to my room. She and I still had a lot of talking to do too. We went upstairs, and I wondered when they'd move me out of guest housing and back to the dorm. Probably whenever Alberta finished with the red tape. It still seemed impossible to accept that I was going to be able to return to my old life and move on from all that had happened in the last month or so. Ã¢â¬Å"Did Adrian give you a love note?Ã¢â¬ Lissa asked me. Her voice was teasing, but through the bond, I knew she still worried about me grieving for Dimitri. Ã¢â¬Å"Not yet,Ã¢â¬ I said. Ã¢â¬Å"I'll explain later.Ã¢â¬ Outside my room, one of the building attendants was just about to knock on the door. When she saw me, she held out a thick padded envelope. Ã¢â¬Å"I was just bringing this to you. It arrived in today's mail.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Thanks,Ã¢â¬ I said. I took it from her and looked at it. My name and St. Vladimir's address were printed in neat writing, which I found odd, since my arrival here had been sudden. There was no return address, but it bore Russian postmarks and delivery through global overnight mail. Ã¢â¬Å"Do you know who it's from?Ã¢â¬ Lissa asked once the woman was gone. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't know. I met a lot of people in Russia.Ã¢â¬ It could have been from Olena, Mark, or Sydney. YetÃ¢â¬ ¦ something I couldn't quite explain set my senses on high alert. I tore open one side and reached in. My hand closed around something cold and metallic. I knew before I even pulled it out what it was. It was a silver stake. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh God,Ã¢â¬ I said I rolled the stake around, running my finger over the engraved geometric pattern at its base. There was no question. One-of-a-kind. This was the stake I'd taken from the vault in Galina's house. The one I'd Ã¢â¬Å"Why would someone send you a stake?Ã¢â¬ asked Lissa. I didn't answer and instead pulled out the envelope's next item: a small note card. There, in handwriting I knew all too well, was: You forgot another lesson: Never turn your back until you know your enemy is dead. Looks like we'll have to go over the lesson again the next time I see you-which will be soon. Love, D. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh,Ã¢â¬ I said, nearly dropping the card. Ã¢â¬Å"This is not good.Ã¢â¬ The world spun for a moment, and I closed my eyes, taking a deep breath. For the hundredth time, I ran through the events of the night I'd escaped from Dimitri. Every other time, my emotions and attention were always on the look on his face when I stabbed him, the sight of his body falling into that black water. Now my mind summoned up the details of the struggle. I recalled how his last-minute dodge had interfered with my shot at his heart. For a moment out there, I hadn't thought I'd gotten the stake in hard enough-until I'd seen his face go slack and watched him fall. But I really hadn't gotten the stake in hard enough. My first instinct had been right, but things had happened too fast. He'd fallenÃ¢â¬ ¦ and then what? Had the stake been loose enough to fall out on its own? Had he been able to pull it out? Had the river's impact knocked it out? Ã¢â¬Å"All those practice dummies, all for nothing,Ã¢â¬ I muttered, recalling how Dimitri had drilled me over and over to plunge a stake into the chest so it would get past the ribs and into the heart. Ã¢â¬Å"Rose,Ã¢â¬ exclaimed Lissa. I had a feeling this wasn't the first time she'd said my name. Ã¢â¬Å"What's going on?Ã¢â¬ The most important staking of my lifeÃ¢â¬ ¦ and I had messed it up. What would happen now? Looks like we'll have to go over the lesson again the next time I see you-which will be soon. I didn't know what to feel. Despair that I hadn't released Dimitri's soul and fulfilled the promise I'd secretly made to him? Relief that I hadn't killed the man I loved? And always, always that question: Would he have said he loved me if we'd had a few moments more? I still had no answers. My emotions were running crazy, and I needed to put them on hold and analyze what I knew here. First: two and a half months. I'd promised my mom two and a half months. No action until then. Meanwhile, Dimitri was still out there, still a Strigoi. As long as he was loose in the world, there would be no peace for me. No closure. Looking at that card again, I realized I would have no peace even if I tried to ignore him. I understood the card's message. Dimitri was coming for me this time. And something told me that I had blown my chance at being turned Strigoi. He was coming to kill me. What had he said when I escaped the manor? That there was no way we could both be alive in the world? And yet, maybe we couldÃ¢â¬ ¦ When I didn't answer her right away, Lissa's worry grew. Ã¢â¬Å"Your face is freaking me out a little. What are you thinking?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Do you believe in fairy tales?Ã¢â¬ I asked, looking up into her eyes. Even as I said the words, I could imagine Mark's disapproval. Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬ ¦ what kind of fairy tales?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The kind you aren't supposed to waste your life on.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I don't understand,Ã¢â¬ she said. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm totally lost. Tell me what's going on. What can I do?Ã¢â¬ Two and a half months. I had to stay here for two and a half months-it seemed like forever. But I'd promised my mom that I would, and I refused to be rash again-particularly with the stakes so high now. Promises. I was drowning in promises. I'd even promised Lissa something. Ã¢â¬Å"Did you mean it before? You want to go with me on my next crazy quest? No matter what?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes.Ã¢â¬ There was no uncertainty or hesitation in the word, no wavering in her steady green eyes. Of course, I wondered if she'd feel the same way later when she found out what it was we were going to do. What could anyone offer a condemned man that would really make a difference in his life? I'd pondered that earlier, trying to figure out what could get Victor Dashkov to talk. Victor had told Abe there was nothing anyone could offer that would make him give up the information about his brother's alleged ability to restore Strigoi. Victor was serving a life sentence; no bribe could matter to him anymore. But one thing could, I realized. Freedom. And there was only one way to achieve that. We were going to have to break Victor Dashkov out of prison. But I decided not to mention that to Lissa quite yet. All I knew for now was that I had a fleeting shot at saving Dimitri. Mark had said it was a fairy tale, but I had to take the chance. The question was: how long did I have until Dimitri came to kill me? How long did I have to figure out if the impossible was actually possible? That was the real issue. Because if Dimitri showed up before I had a chance to find the dragon in this story-Victor-things were going to get ugly. Maybe this whole Robert thing was one big lie, but even if it wasn'tÃ¢â¬ ¦ well, the clock was ticking. If Dimitri came for me before I could get to Victor and Robert, I'd have to fight him again. No question. I couldn't wait for this magical cure. I'd have to kill Dimitri for real this time and lose any chance I might have to bring back my prince. Damn. It's a good thing I work well under pressure.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
In adding up to the definition by Project Management Institute which was submitted at the beginning of this proposal, a substantial numbers of experts have defined project management. Kerzner (2009) stated that project management is the application of knowledge, expertise and skills, and the best technical way with limited resources in the company to achieve specific targets in order to achieve optimum results in terms of performance, time, quality and safety. Based on this perspective, it is found that project management is a set of practical understanding and skills which project managers need in accomplishing their project in organizations for satisfying result, Nicholas and Steyn (2012). However, the application of project managementÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Project Management Institute (2013) stated that a good understanding of project life cycle has to be balanced with a good understanding on process groups of project management. Nevertheless, contradictory situation occur s when electricity transmission contractors of PLN execute contracts on constructing transmissions and substations. Therefore, it is needed to collect five basic understanding about process groups in project management as standardized in the PMBOK Guide 5th Edition as follows. First, initiating process is the formal beginning by having authorization to start the project which is considered as the very first group in the sequence of project management (PMI, 2013). Second, planning process is a process with its main goal to create project management plan that can be translated into planning documents (PMI, 2013). Third, execute process is all about execution of the project that has been laid out in the project management plan (PMI, 2013). Four, monitoring and controlling process is a process of measuring and comparing in order to track all variables and make adjustments needed (PMI, 2013). Five, closing process is the last but not least process group which verify all of the activities that have been completed in order to close the project (PMI, 2013). 3.4. 10 Knowledge Areas In the PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, Project Management Institute added one more into the knowledge areas so that it becomes 10. The one is ProjectShow MoreRelatedQc Code Of Quality969 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmanual highlights QICÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to quality and has been developed to aid in understanding how we meet the requirements if standards such as ISO 9001 at a policy level. QICÃ¢â¬â¢s procedures use these policies to establish practical data and information on how the operations of our business can be refined. Many of these may not be unique to QIC however have been proven in the past as being successful and will be adopted for use in ways that collaborate with current processes. 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